Suggested Reading Lists

  1. General

  2. Haidt, J. (2012). The Righteous Mind: Why Good People Are Divided by Politics and Religion. New York: Pantheon Books. [link]

    Hall, S. (2010). Wisdom from Philosophy to Neuroscience. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. [link]

    Snow, N. (2008). The Philosophy and Psychology of Virtue: An Empirical Approach to Character and Happiness. Routledge Press. [link]

    Sternberg, R. J. (1990). (Ed.), Wisdom: Its nature, origins and development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [link]

    Sternberg, R.S., & Jordan, J. (Eds). (2005). A Handbook of Wisdom: Psychological Perspectives. New York: Cambridge University Press. [link]

    Thaler, R., & Sunstein, C. (2008). Nudge. Penguin. [link]

    Tiberius, V. (2008). The Reflective Life: Living Wisely with our Limits. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [link]

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  3. Historical concepts of wisdom: Phronesis and Sophia, Aristotle

  4. Aristotle. Nicomachean Ethics, Book VI [link]

    Cooper, J.M. (2012).  Pursuits of Wisdom: Six Ways of Life in Ancient Philosophy from Socrates to Plotinus.  Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. [link]

    Hadot, P. (1995). Philosophy as a Way of Life: Spiritual Exercises from Socrates to Foucault.  Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing, Ltd. [link]

    Schreiner, S.E. (2011).  Are You Alone Wise? The Search for Certainty in the Early Modern Era.  New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc. [link]               

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  5. Defining wisdom - foundations and aspects

  6. Ardelt, M. (2004). Wisdom as expert knowledge system: A critical review of a contemporary operationalization of an ancient concept. Human Development, 47(5), 257-285. [pdf]

    Baltes, P. B., & Smith, J. (2008). The fascination of wisdom: Its nature, ontogeny, and function. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3(1), 56-64. [link]

    Bangen K.J., Meeks, T.W., & Jeste, D.V. (2013). Defining and assessing wisdom: A review of the literature. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21(12), 1254-1266. [link]

    Ferrari, M. & Weststrate, N. (Eds.). (2012). The Scientific Study of Personal Wisdom: From Contemplative Traditions to Neuroscience. New York: Springer. [link]

    Glück, J., König, S., Naschenweng, K., Redzanowski, U., Dorner, L., Straßer, I. & Wiedermann, W. (2013). How to measure wisdom: content, reliability, and validity of five measures. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 405. [link]

    Meeks, T.W., & Jeste, D.V. (2009). The neurobiology of wisdom: A literature overview. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 66(4), 355-365. [pdf]

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  7. Epistemic Humility - understanding the limits of knowledge and value relativism

  8. Davis, D.E., Worthington, E.L., Jr., Hook, J.N., Emmons, R.A., Hill, P.C., Bollinger, R.A., & Van Tongeren, D.R. (2013). Humility and the development and repair of social bonds: Two longitudinal studies. Self and Identity, 12, 58-77. [link]

    Hook, J.N., Davis, D.E., Owen, J., Worthington, E.L., Jr., & Utsey, S.O. (2013). Cultural humility: Measuring openness to culturally diverse clients. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60, 353-366. [link]

    Tangney, J.P. (2002). Humility. In C.R. Snyder & S.J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of Positive Psychology (pp. 411-419). New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press. [link]

    Tiberius, V. (2012). Open-mindedness and Normative Contingency. In R. Shafer-Landau (Ed.), Oxford Studies in Metaethics, Volume 7, (pp. 182-204). Oxford: Oxford University Press. [link]

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  9. Reflection - cognition vs. intuition

  10. Greene, J.D., Morelli, S.A., Lowenberg, K., Nystrom, L.E., & Cohen, J.D. (2008). Cognitive load selectively interferes with utilitarian moral judgment. Cognition, 107, 1144-1154. [link]

    Pagnoni, G., Cekic, M., & Guo, Y. (2008). Thinking about not-thinking: Neural correlates of conceptual processing during Zen meditation. PLoS One, 3, e3083. [link]

    Paxton, J.M., Ungar, L., & Greene, J.D., (2011 ePub, 2012). Reflection and reasoning in moral judgment. Cognitive Science, 36(1), 163-177. [pdf]

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  11. Grounding decisions in virtues - moral reasoning

  12. Graham, J., Nosek, B. A., Haidt, J., Iyer, R., Koleva, S., & Ditto, P. H. (2011). Mapping the moral domain. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,101, 366-385. [pdf]

    Greene, J.D., Nystrom, L.E., Engell, A.D., Darley, J.M., & Cohen, J.D. (2004). The neural bases of cognitive conflict and control in moral judgment. Neuron, 44, 389-400. [pdf]

    Snow, N. (2006). Habitual virtuous actions and automaticity. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, 9(5), 545-561. [link]

    Snow, N. (2008). Virtue and flourishing. Journal of Social Philosophy, 39(2), 225-245. [link]

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  13. Perseverance - engaging intellectual struggle, self control

  14. Duckworth, A.L. & Seligman, M.E.P. (2005). Self-discipline outdoes IQ predicting academic performance in adolescents. Psychological Science, 16, 939-944. [pdf]

    Duckworth, A.L., Peterson, C., Matthews, M.D., & Kelly, D.R. (2007). Grit: Perseverance and passion for long-term goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(6), 1087-1101. [pdf]

    Mischel, W., Shoda, Y, Rodriguez, M.L., (1989). Delay of gratification in children. Science, 244, 933-938. [pdf]

    Mullainathan, S., Kaur, S., & Kremer, M. (2010). Self control and the development of work arrangements. American Economic Review: Papers and Proceedings, 100, 624-628. [link]

    Muraven, M., & Baumeister, R.F. (2000). Self-regulation and depletion of limited resources: Does self-control resemble a muscle? Psychological Bulletin, 126, 247-259. [pdf]

    Romer, D., Duckworth, A.L., Sznitman, S., & Park, S. (2010). Can adolescents learn self control? Delay of gratification in the development of control over risk taking. Prevention Science, 11(3), 319-330. [pdf]

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  15. Wisdom in law and business

  16. Amir, O., Ariely, D., Cooke, A., Dunning, D., Epley, N., Koszegi, B., Lichtenstein, D., Mazar, N., Mullainathan, S., Prelec, D., Shafir, E., & Silva, J. (2005). Behavioral economics, psychology, and public policy. Marketing Letters, 16 (3-4), 443-454. [link]

    Greene, J.D. & Cohen J.D. (2004). For the law, neuroscience changes nothing and everything. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B (Special Issue on Law and the Brain), 359, 1775-1785. [pdf]

    Kamenica, E., Mullainathan, S., & Thaler, R. (2011). Helping consumers know themselves. American Economic Review: Papers and Proceedings,101(3), 417-22. [link]

    Mullainathan, S., Bertrand, M. & Shafir, E. (2004). A behavioral economics view of poverty. American Economic Review, 94(2), 419-423. [pdf]

    Zeki, S. & Goodenough, O., (Eds.). (2006). Law and the Brain. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press. [link]

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  17. Wisdom in education and medicine

  18. Duckworth, A.L., Quinn, P.D., & Seligman, M.E.P. (2009). Positive predictors of teacher effectiveness. Journal of Positive Psychology, 19, 540-547. [pdf]

    Edmondson, R, & Pearce, J. (2007). The practice of health care: Wisdom as a model. Med Health Care Philos., 10, 233-244. [link]

    Kaldjian, L.C. (2010). Teaching practical wisdom in medicine through clinical judgement, goals of care, and ethical reasoning. Journal of Medical Ethics, 36, 558-562. [link]

    Kaldjian, L.C. (2014). Practicing Medicine and Ethics: Integrating Wisdom, Conscience, and Goals of Care. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press. [link]

    Krause, N. (2012). Religious involvement, humility, and change in self-rated health over time. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 40, 199-210. [link]

    Kuhn, D. & Udell, W. (2001). The path to wisdom. Educational Psychologist, 36, 261-264. [link]

    Stanovich, K.E. (2001). The rationality of educating for wisdom. Educational Psychologist, 36, 247-251. [pdf]

    Sternberg, R.J. (2001). How wise is it to teach for wisdom? A reply to five critiques. Educational Psychologist, 36(4), 269-272. [pdf]

    Sternberg, R.J. (2001). Why schools should teach for wisdom: The balance theory of wisdom in educational settings. Educational Psychologist, 36, 227-245. [pdf]

    Sternberg. R. J. (2003). Wisdom and education. Gifted Education International, 17, 233-248. [link]

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  19. Everyday wisdom - Phronesis and eudaimonia

  20. Ardelt, M. (2010). Are older adults wiser than college students? A comparison of two age cohorts. Journal of Adult Development, 17(4), 193-207. [link]

    Duckworth, A.L., Weir, D., Tsukayama, E., & Kwok, D. (2012). Who does well in life? Conscientious adults excel in both objective and subjective success. Frontiers in Personality Science and Individual Differences, 3(356), 1-8. [pdf]

    Tiberus, V. (2010). Wisdom and work. In M.R. Haney & A.D. Kline (Eds.), The Value of Time and Leisure in a World of Work (pp. 119-138). Plymouth, U.K.: Lexington Books. [link]

    Tiberus, V. (2013). Recipes for a good life: Eudaimonism and the contribution of philosophy. In A. Waterman (Ed.), The Best Within Us: Positive Psychology Perspectives on Eudaimonic Functioning (pp. 19-38). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. [link]

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  21. Wisdom Bibliographies

  22. The following is a compilation of references concerning wisdom from various disciplines. This literature review provides a solid foundation for exploring important conceptions of wisdom (pdf links):

    Ancient Conceptions of Wisdom



    Classical Philosophy

    Old Testament and Theology in General

    Philosophy - General References

    Philosophy of Rationality

    Practical Wisdom - Judgment, Reasoning, and Decision-Making

    Practical Wisdom - Leadership and Performance

    Practical Wisdom - Persuasion, Negotiation, and Management

    Proverbs and Maxims

    Psychology of Wisdom

    Renaissance and Enlightenment Conceptions of Wisdom

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