Wisdom: Reflections and Problems of current Theoretisation

Injustice of Value-based Hierarcies

Abstract: Human development and change are always twofold: they include both progress and regress, forward and backward going. However, generally, development is assumed to progress towards higher and higher stages and levels, and it is also assumed to be hierarchical, advancing gradually towards the ‘better’. Wisdom is especially labelled as one of the highest attainments of optimal human development–an ideal and the ultimate goal of all development. However, these terms are not often analysed or reflected further to understand their problems and hidden assumptions, especially regarding unethical claims of ‘better’,‘advanced’ and ‘more developed’. From a certain viewpoint, these kinds of claims can be seen as discriminative, even racial, and unjust, as seldom have the criteria of ranking been explicated. Who determines which developmental level or stage is considered better or more developed, and on what ideological, worldview-based and axiological assumptions are such determinations based?

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Kallio, E. K. (2023). Wisdom: Reflections and Problems of current Theoretisation: Injustice of Value-based Hierarcies. Environmental Care and Social Progress:(Im) possible Connection?. (pp. 121-130). Osder Publications.